Heritage: Art Music by Bajan Composers

In 2011 the International Journal of Bahamian Studies (Vol 17, No 1) published an article about the music of the Caribbean called “From Classical to Calypso: An Interview with Bahamian Composer and Conductor Cleophas R. E. Adderley” [link] by Christine Gangelhoff, Ruebendero Gibson and Crashan Johnson. This sparked a project to discover each of the Caribbean islands world of what is now called art-music.


Classical music has not traditionally been the domain of European musicians – although we have been led to believe that from publications, concerts, and text books. But it is not exclusively European property and was never claimed as such. This myth was perpetuated by the musicologists, who were also, not accidentally, European.

Nonetheless, the performance of music for an attentive audience who remained silent until the work was ended, is a concept rather antithetic to the purpose and function of music in many cultures, and remains so in many social environs. The preponderance of this music is improvised, or at least realised by the performer from a pre-existing source. That demands an ear and insight that is challenging and distinctive, but it does not allow for the creation of a work demanding more than momentary attention and instantaneous creation. If the musician seeks an extended form or wishes to give inner voices a more complex role, something else is needed. Polishing ideas in this manner can increase the time needed for the creation of the work. Once finished, it can be played outside of the immediate locale, its details are notated so that others may per form it, at a distance of space or time from the original creator.

When such a work is to be created in a new region, the composer may try to follow a European model, but this is dressing up one’s own culture with foreign clothes. That is then the time to idealise the local impetus. In the United States, we struggled with this problem for decades, too few initially heeding the words of Antonín Dvořák when he was a visitor to New York in 1893. He had faced this situation when he tried to write music that reflected his own homeland, rather than the power of a German invasion. He urged the Americans not to follow Leipzig, but to acknowledge their distinctive roots. But these were the creation of slaves, at a time lynchings and minstrel shows were forms of popular entertainment. A few followed his advice: African Americans of course, like Harry Burleigh and William Grant Still with the spiritual and blues, and a few whose ancestry did not experience involuntary importation, George Gershwin, being the most successful.

Gradually, people outside the Caribbean had begun to learn music that was not of European origin. We owe that discovery to ethnomusicologists who alerted the musicologists to humanism and social relevancy, who subsequently infected the educators and their students, from whom came those subversives who have begun to remove myopia from the repertoires. Now we are enjoying the richness of the music of contemporary Africa and Asia. It might seem difficult to comprehend now, but there was a time when jazz could not be performed in the campus practice rooms, when no course was offered in the universities on American music. The change in the US came about with the government funds made available to commemorate the Bicentennial of the United States in 1976. And money changed philosophies. Our own sentiments of cultural inferiority began to vanish and the repertoires and course offerings were augmented. In the end, if art music is the focus of attention, that study must be informed by all idioms. All we in the United States might know now of The Bahamas and much of the Caribbean is tourism, adorned with a paternalistic attitude. So what message Dvořák offered over a century ago might relate to The Bahamas? What of the spirituals brought here by those immigrants who served the Loyalists? How has your music taken the British choral tradition as a point of departure? What dialect does your jazz speak? What of your traditional dances and your own lullabies? What of your folklore? That which is taking place now so dramatically in The Bahamas will further define classical music to the world. And herein are the means whereby these prob lems are addressed and these questions are answered.

Discoveries that are reported as a mere list of names are dead-end, providing no immediate amelioration. From this initial point, one needs to know what works these individuals have created, how to locate those that have been made available to the public, and which of these have been played or recorded. Now the work becomes functional for private collectors, libraries, and archives. Even this is not enough. The obligation now falls on those in a posit ion to disseminate the information – authors, performers, educators, and those in the media. Simultaneously, the works must be seen in the light of the culture in which they were created and which they normally are designed to enhance. By that process, others develop a concept of the distinction of this culture and the people for whom it was created. The music now becomes securely located within the humanities and the culture gains a better understanding of humanity.

Had anyone guessed there had been so many art composers, so prolific, from these countries? We knew about Christiane Eda-Pierre, the soprano born in 1932 in Martinique who captivated Parisian opera lovers; Edward Henry Margetson who migrated from St. Kitts to the United States, continuing his work in church music; baritone Willard White, born in Jamaica in 1948, who was knighted in 1995 by Queen Elizabeth II and ranks among the major artists of opera. What now of those others born in the Caribbean who enhanced not only their homeland, but also the musical life of London, New York, or Paris? This work of Dr. Gangelhoff and Ms. LeGrand now creates opportunities for those who may hope to benefit from these efforts.

Dominique-René de Lerma
Professor Emeritus, Lawrence Conservatory of Music, Lawrence University, Appleton Wisconsin

Art-Music by Caribbean Composers

by Dr. Christine Gangelhoff

Assistant Professor of Music at The College of
The Bahamas
since 2007 and a member of the C-Force Chamber Ensemble

Musical genres associated with the Caribbean region typically include popular and traditional styles such as reggae, calypso, soca, merengue, and zouk. These musical styles are, in general, well documented both in the scholarly and popular realm; writings on and recordings of these styles are easy to locate. Art-music from the Caribbean region is much less examined and, indeed, less well known. Many composers of art-music have emerged from Caribbean nations, often to little notice. Research and documentation of this tradition exists but is scattered, easily overlooked and, in general, difficult to locate. The goal of this project, now in its second volume, is to identify and list all available information on the art-music tradition of the Caribbean region. It will, ultimately, form a comprehensive document of value to musicians, ethnomusicologists, historians, researchers, educators and students. We recognized a need to broaden somewhat the original scope of the project. Initially, only composers born in and native to the Caribbean were to be considered for inclusion. However, it became clear that some important composers, not born in the Caribbean but long resident there, have been influential in the art-musical tradition of certain islands. As excluding those influential composers from this project would render inaccurate its depiction of art-musical life, the authors decided to change the original restrictions. Therefore, non-native-born composers of particular importance to an island are included as is a notation of the composer’s place of origin. This sec ond volume of the project provides a listing of scores and sheet music; recordings (sound files, CD’s, etc.); websites; a bibliography of books and articles; and a listing of research institutions and libraries regarding composers of Caribbean art-music. Whenever possible, we included information on the potential sources of these materials (directions to where they can be acquired, either by purchase, by download, or by borrowing). We have intentionally excluded materials existing exclusively in outdated formats (such as 78 LPs, audiocassettes, and microform). We also have excluded those works for which a record exists but no copies can be located. (If an item cannot at least be borrowed from a library or purchased from a vendor, it is not included here).

Defining Art-Music

Art-music is a difficult concept to define. The distinction between art music and folk music is indeed blurred and, as a result, is difficult to articulate. For this project, we used the following criteria to distinguish art music from popular, traditional and folk music (styles which, again, are not covered here, being already well-represented elsewhere). These criteria do not arise from elitist intentions and are outlined in order to demonstrate clearly which works are included in the scope of this work:

  • Art-music descends from the western classical tradition.
  • Art-music may draw inspiration from or make use of melodies from folk music or dance tunes, as composers have done throughout history. But, while the subject matter may be borrowed from the folk or popular traditions, the style remains formal, often with advanced musical structure.
  • Art-music is fully composed. Parts are arranged and written in western staff notation. Music preserved only by oral tradition and not fixed in a written medium does not qualify. (This criterion serves to distinguish classical music of non-western traditions).
  • All parts are played as written. Interpretation, as opposed to improvisation, is the dominant focus of the performer. (Accordingly, music played from a lead sheet or a jazz chart is excluded under this definition).
  • The composition and performance or interpretation of art-music requires specialized skill and knowledge, unique to the classical style.
  • The experiential focus of art-music is on listening to the performance as opposed to physical engagement such as dancing.

Art-Music excludes the influence and continued wide use of classical European religious music in the form of Hymns, Carols and Organ music in the Caribbean religious world.

Art-Music in Barbados

Barbados, the easternmost of all the Caribbean islands, was established as a British colony in 1627 and control of the island did not change hands during the colonial period (Bilby, 2008). Barbados remained solely under British control until gaining independence in 1966 and today remains part of the British Commonwealth (Gragg, 2005).

Colonizers quickly created a plantation economy, supported by large numbers of imported African slaves, with sugar cultivation as its major cash crop (Gragg, 2005). The Barbados sugar industry was hugely lucrative for Great Britain, rendering Barbados one of its most valuable colonies (Gragg, 2005). Owing much to its dual heritage, Barbadian culture is a mix of primarily African and British traditions.

Unique forms of indigenous folk music include tuk and spouge music. Tuk music, a local version of the comm on fife-and-drum marching band, dates back to the 18th century (Bilby, 2008). Tuk music is “lively, with an intricate, pulsating and quick rhythm” (Marshall & Watson, 2008, p. 347). Spouge is a 20th century development (Best, 2005).

The Crop Over festival, which originated during colonial times as a harvest festival and which was revived in the 1970s as both a cultural and commercial event, provides an annual venue for traditional and popular music as well as other cultural activities. Calypso is a promi nent feature of Crop Over (“Barbados Crop Over,” 2013). The Landship, founded in the 19th century, conducts parades of music and dance, loosely patterned after the British navy. “Dances during Landship parades … typify European-African fusion: the British military march, jig, hornpipe, and maypole dance of the village green combine with African cross-rhythms and improvisation” (Millington, 1998, p. 819).

James A Millington (1947-19__), a black New York-trained concert violinist, performed at St Michael’s Cathedral in the 1930s. On his arrival at the cathedral for the first performance, crowds were clamouring to be admitted and he had difficulty in persuading them that he was a performer and should be given priority to enter. Performers were expected to be white. James and Gerald Hudson (the British organist at St Michael’s Cathedral) got together under the name “Black and White Whiskey Dogs” and played at concerts around the Caribbean. James also became involved in teaching the violin at his studio in Spry Street. It was not until 1949, when he was appointed visiting master at Combermere School, that a trained musician taught music at a school in the island (Millington, 2005, p.114). Then in 1958 the University of the West Indies (as it was to become) invited the highly skilled musician John George Fletcher, born of Grenadian and Scottish parents, to start a music program at Mona, Jamaica. However, due to lack of funding and resources the project could not get off the ground and at the same time Fletcher was offered a similar position at Combermere, where he continued Millington’s work and spent the next thirty years developing the music program at that school. Because of his wide travels throughout the organ world and his many friendships with great organist and musicians from Europe, Canada and America there followed an era of musical exchange where the musical forces would come to Barbados and impart their talents to a hungry audience and in-turn he took his skills and choir of St. Michael’s Cathedral out to these continents to share their music (Greaves, 2010).

Most of the music teachers teaching and the children studying music on Barbados will use the exam system of the Associated Board of the Royal Schools of Music’ (ABRSM), although only a small number of music-teachers go on to take the musical-teaching diplomas. Founded in 1889, this exam board for the Royal Schools of Music is a leading authority on musical assessment and a body which delivers over 650,000 graded exams and professional diplomas (DipABRSM, LRSM and FRSM) for more than 35 instruments, singing, jazz, ensembles, practical musicianship and music theory every year in 93 countries. The exams are accredited by the regulatory authorities throughout the United Kingdom and are part of the National Qualifications Framework. The ABRSM exams awards can be used for credit towards the relevant qualifications in Australia, Canada and South Africa. The ABRSM began examinations the Caribbean first in Jamaica in 1908 and in Barbados in 1926, and although there have been many local Representatives administering the exams, John George Fletcher was one of the most recent, serving the ABRSM from 1969 to 2000 (Greaves, 2010).

In more recent times, the Barbados Ministry of Education, Youth Affairs and Culture encourages appreciation of the musical and cultural heritage of the nation through the Cultural and Historical Exposure for Kids in Schools (CHEKS) program (Meredith, 2003). The Combermere school, one of the oldest secondary schools in the country, “has produced many students over the years who excelled in music and [has become] known as the premiere secondary school in Barbados for music education” (S. Jackson, personal communication, May 22, 2013). Among the musical alumni of Combermere are Arturo Tappin, the jazz saxophonist; Joy Knight-Lynch, violinist and leader of the Barbados Youth Orchestra; Samuel Springer, organist; the late James A. Millington, violinist; and Rihanna – American pop-star (S. Jackson, personal communication, May 22, 2013). Sean Jackson, another Combermere alumnus, is one of the outstanding Barbadian expat musicians and composers. He serves as the Director of Music at Stanwich Church in Greenwich, Connecticut and performs organ concerts all over the world (“Biography,” n.d.).

The Barbados Community College Division of Fine Arts offers an AA in Music. Roger Gittens, a Barbadian composer, arranger and musician, helped write the program. Gittens has composed a wide variety of pieces, from calypsos and jazz to gospel and choral music (“About Roger Gittens,” 2008). In describing his s ong, “Come to Me” Gittens explains:

… this setting of the words of Jesus as recorded in Matthew 11:28-29 started as an attempt to marry calypso-type rhythms with the contrapuntal traditions of European art-music. The piece is in ternary form and the syncopated melody is found only in the A section. This music, like several of my pieces, was inspired by my experience in Sunday worship at the Shrewsbury Methodist church in Barbados. It is my first a cappella com position and, although conceived for a quartet, it has been performed by choirs [R. Gittens, personal communication, June 18, 2013].

The Barbados National Youth Symphony Orchestra, the Barbados Chamber Orchestra, The Myriad Singers of Barbados, and the St. Leonard’s Boys Choir provide opportunities for musicians to perform and for audiences to enjoy art music. The Royal Barbados Police Force Band performs widely both nationally and internationally.


  • Cecil E. Archer (1901 – 1988)
  • Ryan Boyce (1977 – )
  • Prince Cave A.R.C.M. (1921 – 1997)
  • Jason Catlyn A.Mus (1980 – )
  • C. Van Roland Edwards (1912 – 1985)
  • John George Fletcher D.Mus., F.R.C.O. (C.H.M.), A.D.C.M., F.T.C.L., L.R.A.M., A.R.C.M., L.R.S.M. (1931 – )
  • Arnold Josiah Ford (1877 – 1935)
  • Roger Othneil Gittens M.Mus (1964 – )
  • Gerard Hudson O.B.E., F.R.C.O. (hons,) A.R.C.M., L.R.S.M. (1897 – 1975)
  • Frederich Samuel Hunte Sean Jackson A.R.C.M. (1973 – )
  • Damian Leacock (1990 – )
  • Andrew Decourcey Lynch B.S.M., L.R.S.M., A.T.C.L. (1962 – )
  • Kenrick Alphonzo Moore L.T.C.L., A.V.C.M. (1931 – 2011)
  • Bernard Morris (1917? – )
  • Litchfield Clement Nurse (1947 – )
  • Victor Colin Pilgrim S.C.N., L.T.C.L., A.R.C.M., CERT MUS.ED (1940 – )
  • Christopher “Kit” P. Spencer L.R.A.M. (1938 – )
  • Carley “Andy” Williams (1949 – )

COMPOSITIONS, by composer


  • Ancestors on the auction block (2007, a capella, from a poem by Vera Ball of Jamaica)
  • Ave verum (2003, for choir)
  • Baptist melody (2003, for a cappella choir)
  • Farewell my friend (2008, duet)
  • God is glorious (2011, for choir & organ)
  • How great is your name (2010, for choir, based on Psalm 110 )
  • I’m the greatest (2008 , solo with barbershop choir)
  • Just in time (2006, for choir & orchestra)
  • Oh Lord you know me (2009, solo with choir, marimba & piano)
  • Psalm of hope (2008, for piano)
  • Psalm 118 (2009, for choir)
  • The conciliator (1967, for military band)
  • Siesta (for military band)
  • Enter into his gates (2006, processional march)
  • Enter into his gates (2010, for organ)
  • HMBS Pelican (2009, march)
  • My march (2009, march)
  • Sunny isle (2009, for band)
  • You can be the one (2007, for choir)
  • The federation song
  • The goodman song
  • In plenty and in time of need (1966, Barbados national anthem)
  • The St. Andrew murder
  • Welcome to Her Majesty the Queen Elizabeth II (1966, sung on her visit to St. Elizabeth School in St. Joseph, Barbados)
  • [more to be added, see Greaves (2010)]
  • One in Royal David’s City (1976, organ arrangment tune of Irby)
  • Versicles & Responses (1983)
  • The Responses (1983)
  • Anthem: Nipson (1983)


  • Universal Ethiopian anthem
  • Bajan folk suite (2010, for orchestra)
  • Be still (for choir)
  • Come to me (for choir)
  • Emmerton (2010, for orchestra)
  • Feed my lambs (for choir)
  • From all that dwell below the skies (for choir)
  • Go in faith (for choir)
  • Orchestra and steel no.1 (for big band)
  • Psalm 1 (2013, for choir)
  • Psalm 23 (2005, for choir)
  • Psalm 67 (2009, for choir)
  • Psalm 100 (for choir)
  • Psalm 121 (for choir)
  • Rest of the weary (for choir)
  • Sing your praises (for choir)
  • Te deum (for choir)
  • When morning gilds the skies (for choir)
  • Te deum laudamus (1971, mass)
  • There was war in Heaven (for choir)
  • Hunte Bathsheba (1997, slow march)
  • Broken trident (1988, unfinished quick march)
  • The crane (1992, slow march)
  • The garrison Savannah (2003, slow march)
  • Hackleton (1988, unfinished quick march)
  • Mount Hillaby (2003, quick march)
  • Paragon (2003, slow march)
  • Pico Tenerife (1987, unfinished quick march)
  • Pride and industry (1991, slow march)
  • RBPF (2003, quick march, ‘The Royal Barbados Police Force’)
  • Saint Celia (1988, unfinished slow march)
  • Silver sands (1991, slow march)
  • Advancing on the enemy (2009 – 2011)
  • Allegro for piano and strings (2009 – 2011)
  • Barbados we greet you (1987, for the 21st anniversary of independence in Barbados)
  • Bassoon andante (2009 – 2011)
  • Breath of Jesus (2009, for soprano duet & organ)
  • The call (2008, for soprano, tenor, choir, piano, violin, cello, trumpet, & snare drum)
  • C’est la vie (2009 – 2011)
  • A Christmas treat (2009 – 2011)
  • Dark encounter (2009 – 2011)
  • Delight in ‘A’ (2009 – 2011)
  • Forget-me-not (2009 – 2011)
  • Glorious sky (2009 – 2011)
  • God’s hands are over St. Ann’s (1995, school song for St. Ann’s Church of England School, London, UK)
  • Horizon appearing (2009 – 2011)
  • Hot topic (2009 – 2011)
  • I was lost (1995, for soprano & piano)
  • Instantly lonely (2009 – 2011)
  • It’s happening now (2009 – 2011)
  • Leading onwards (2009 – 2011)
  • Mad kicker (2009 – 2011)
  • Mirage (2009 – 2011)
  • Misty view (2009 – 2011)
  • Out of time (2009 – 2011)
  • Serene smile (2009 – 2011)
  • Sweet encounter (2009 – 2011)
  • Sweeter dreams (2009 – 2011)
  • Tongue-in-cheek (2009 – 2011)
  • Transport me (2009 – 2011)
  • Women of vision 10th anniversary (2011, film score)
  • Writing on the wall (2009 – 2011)
  • Yes we care (2009 – 2011)
  • Across the galaxy (2011, for orchestra)
  • Blue blossoms (2012, for chamber orchestra)
  • Blue waterfall bird (2008 – 09, for flute quartet)
  • Dawn (2011, for orchestra)
  • Faeries and leprechauns (2011)
  • Flute quartet #6 ( 2008-09)
  • Jane’s army (2011, for orchestra)
  • Orchestral poem #1 (2011, for string & wind orchestra)
    Paper heart suite (2011, for string orchestra with piccolo & flute duet)


  • The blue and gold (2006, for military band)


  • The trident of Bimshire (for military band)


  • Jonathan (1992, quick march)


  • Let all the peoples praise you [Todos los pueblos canten] (with Patrick Prescod, for choir)


  • Allegretto (for piano)
  • Allegro molto (1987, for piano)
  • Ballad of an old woman (from a poem by Frank Collymore, for a cappella choir)
  • Coventry carol (for children’s chorus, descant recorders & piano)
  • Cradle song (for piano)
  • Dance, “a two-part invention” (for piano)
  • Dance around D minor (for piano)
  • Diary in mosaic ( 1980 – 82, for piano)
  • Diversions (2009, for descant & treble recorder)
  • Folk song medley (from Barbadian folk songs, for a cappella choir)
  • Folk song medley (for descant recorder, treble recorder & tenor recorder)
  • Four songs (from poems by Michael Foster, 2006, for tenor & piano)
  • Jesu sweet Jesu mild (1998, for a cappella choir)
  • Lullaby (from a poem by Frank Collymore, 1979, for mezzo soprano & piano)
  • Manger lullaby (from a poem by Jennifer Ann Lynch, for children’s choir & piano)
  • Melody in blue (1987, for piano)
  • Music for recorders (from Barbadian folk songs, for descant recorder, treble recorder, tenor recorder & bass recorder)
  • My gift (from a poem by J. A. Lynch, for children’s choir & piano)
  • Prelude & fugue on two Barbadian folk songs (1985, for piano, dedicated to J. S. Bach on his 300th birthday)
  • Rondoletto (1996, for piano)
  • A short ramble (1986, for piano)
  • That younge childe (for a cappella choir)
  • Three connected pieces for flute and piano (2013, for flute & piano)
  • Three pieces (2006, for descant recorder, treble recorder & piano)
  • Three songs about morning (from poems by Esther Phillips, 1998, for mezzo soprano & clarinet)
  • Transformation (from a poem by Michael Foster, 2008, for male voice & piano)
  • Variations (2010, for piano)


  • Centennial (2002, for military band, commissioned for the Barbados Cadet Corps)
  • The drill hall (1994, for military band)
  • Independence day (1991, slow march, for military band)
  • A theme and variation (1991, based on a theme by Franz Joseph Haydn)
  • Visions (1989, quick march, for military band)



  • National anthems of the commonwealth [CD]. (2005). Hong Kong: Naxos. Catalogue No: 8.570126-27
    • Track 6. In plenty and in time of need (1:34)
  • National anthems of the world, vol. 1 [CD]. (2006). Hong Kong: Marco Polo. Catalogue no: 8.225319
    • Track 33. In plenty and in time of need (1:34)
    • Track 34. In plenty and in time of need (Olympic version, 1:23)


  • [more to be added, Greaves (2010)]
  •  Two Bach Organ Pieces [LP]. (1958). Catalogue No: WAV 7501
    • Played on the organ of the Parish Church of the Holy Trinity, St. Andrew, Fife, Scotland
    • Fantasia in G (:)
    • Prelude in E-Minor (:)
  • Sine Nomine Singers at St. Mary’s [TDK 5″]. (Mar 1969)
    • Directed by John G. Fletcher
    • Side 1, Track 1. Byrd: Four Part Mass. (:)
    • Side 1, Track 2. Brahms: Marienlieder (:)
    • Side 2, Track 1. Canal of Marienlieder (:)
    • Side 2, Track 2. Brahms: Motet
    • Side 2, Track 3. Britten: Hymn to St. Cecilia
  • Recital at Diocesan House [TDK 5″]. (Dec 1969)
    • Track 1. Britten: Ceremony of Carols
  • St. Michael’s Cathedral Choir in London [LP]. (1971). Catalogue No: WIRL021
    • [John G. Fletcher as accompanying organist]
    • Jesu, joy of man’s desiring (J.S. Bach)
  • First Recital on St. Michael’s Cathedral Newly Restored Organ [TDK 7″]. (Jun 1974)
    • Side 1, Tracks 1-17. Bach; Hayden; Lang; Yon; De Grigny; Langlais; Liszt; Campbell; Pachelbel; Daquin; etc. (1:30:00)
    • Side 2, Tracks 1-15. Leighton; Schumann; Yon; Bach; Messiaen; Campbell; Howells; Hindemith; Handel; etc. (1:30:00)
  • Christmas at St. Michael’s [LP]. (1976). Catalogue No: REC 1065
    • Side 1, Track 1. Hymn: One in Royal David’s City (Tune: Irby) (4:52) [arranged by J. G. Fletcher]
    • Side 1, Track 2. Carol: Adam lay y bounden (1:20)
    • Side 1, Track 3. Carol: Whence is that goodly fragance? (3:18)
    • Side 1, Track 4. Carol: Lullay my Liking (4:15)
    • Side 1, Track 5. Hymn: While Shepherds Watch’d Their Flocks (Tune: Winchester Old) (2:25)
    • Side 1, Track 6. Carol: Away in a Manger (2:45)
    • Side 1, Track 7. Carol: Ding Dong! Merily on high (1:40)
    • Side 2. Track 1. Hymn: O Little Town of Bethlehem (Tune: Forest Green) (3:18)
    • Side 2. Track 2. Carol: From Jesse’s Stock Upspringing (3:13)
    • Side 2. Track 3. Carol: In That Poor Stable (Dans cette étable) (1:35)
    • Side 2. Track 4. Carol: The Three Kings (1:48)
    • Side 2. Track 5. Hymn: Of the Father’s Love Begotten (Tune: Divinum Mysterium) (2:55)
    • Side 2. Track 6. Carol: The Cherry Tree (1:30)
    • Side 2. Track 7. Carol: Unto Us a Boy is born (2:07)
    • Side 2. Track 8. Hymn: O Come, all ye Faithful (Tune: Adeste Fideles) (3:50)
  • St. Michael’s Cathedral Choir – Sing We Merrily [LP]. (1977). Catalogue No: W069
  • The Cecilian Singers – All Things Beautiful [LP]. (1978). Catalogue No: WIRL082
    • [orgnanist John G. Fletcher; conductor & soloist Marie Lucie Doris Provençal-Kirton (1928-2011)
  • The Cecilian Singers – It’s Christmas in Barbados [LP]. (1978). Catalogue No: WIRL091
    • [conductor & soloist Marie Lucie Doris Provençal-Kirton (1928-2011)
    • Side 1. Track 7. Carols Three (:) [orgnanist John G. Fletcher]
    • Side 2. Track 1. Minuit! Chretiens (:) [orgnanist John G. Fletcher]
  • St. Michael’s Cathedral Choir in Boston – Ave Verum [LP]. (April 1983). Catalogue No: WIRL245
    • [recorded on the organ at Choral Martins, St. Paul’s Cathedral, Boston]
    • Side 1, Track 1. Ave Verum Corpus (:)
    • Side 1. Track 2. Lord, let me know mine end (:)
    • Side 1. Track 3. O Vos Omnes (:)
    • Side 1. Track 4. Out of the Deepe (:)
    • Side 1. Track 5. Excerpts from the Festival Cantata “Rejoice in the Lamb” (:)
    • Side 2. Track 1. Versicles & Responses (:) [by John G. Fletcher]
    • Side 2. Track 2. The Venite, Psalm 95 vv 1-7 (:) [by John G. Fletcher]
    • Side 2. Track 3. Psalm 122 (:)
    • Side 2. Track 4. Te Deum (:)
    • Side 2. Track 5. Jubilate (:)
    • Side 2. Track 6. The Creed, Preces, Responses (by John G. Fletcher), Collects (:)
    • Side 2. Track 7. Anthem: Nipson (:) [by John G. Fletcher]
    • Side 2. Track 8. Hymn 243 vv 1 & 6, Lord Thy Word Abideth (:)
    • Side 2. Track 9. Anthem: Oh Thou the Central Orb & Doxology (:)
    • Side 2. Track 10. Hymn: Imortal, Invisible (:)



  • St. Michael’s Cathedral Choir in London [LP]. (1971). Catalogue No: W021

    • Side 2, Track 6. Te Deum (:) [by G. Hudson, organist David Bell on St. Augustine’s Church, Maida Vale organ]


  • The Royal Barbados Police Force Band. (2007).
    • Visions [CD]. [Barbados]: CRS Music & Media Ltd.
    • Track 1. Visions (3:37)




  • [to be added]
  • “Suite for Organ”, flute, clarinet, bassoon, violin, cello an brass quartet (pp.43, 1973)


  • Todos los pueblos canten (n.d.). San Juan, Puerto Rico: Ediciones Schola Cantorum de Puerto Rico.






Barbadian music: Barbadian discographies, Barbadian jazz musicians, Barbadian jazz trumpeters, Barbadian music critics. (2010). Memphis, TN: LLC Books. ISBN 978 – 1156038406

Braithwaite, P. J. (n.d.). The development of the English choral tradition in the USA and the Caribbean. Retrieved from http://www.wcmt.org.uk/reports/8_1.pdf

Handler, J. S., & Frisbie, C. J. (1972). Aspects of slave life in Barbados: Music and its cultural context. Caribbean Studies, 11 (4), 5-46.

Burgie, Irvin (1977). The Caribbean Song Book, songs of Puerto Rico, Jamaica, Cuba, Barbados, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Trinidad, Bahamas – for voices in harmony, plus 9 island national anthams. Hollis, NY: Carib Music Corp.


Owing much to its dual heritage, Barbadian culture greatly differs from the rest of the Caribbean in that it is a mix of primarily only British and some African traditions.
There are some unique forms of ‘indigenous’ folk music including tuk and spouge music. Tuk music, a local version of the common fife-and-drum marching band, dates back to the 18th century (Bilby, 2008). Tuk music is “lively, with an intricate, pulsating and quick rhythm” (Marshall & Watson, 2008, p. 347). Spouge is a 20th century development (Best, 2005).
The Crop Over festival, which originated during colonial times from the British harvest festival and which was revived in the 1970s as both a commercial and cultural event, provides an annual venue for popular and a spattering of ‘traditional’ music as well as other cultural activities.


About Roger Gittens. (2008). Retrieved from http://www.rogergittensmusic.com/first.html

Best, C. (2005). Barbados. In Continuum encyclopedia of popular music of the world: Locations. Retrieved from http://www.credoreference.com/entry/contpmwl/barbados

Barbados Crop Over Festival. (2013). Retrieved from http://www.barbados.org/cropover.htm

Bilby, K. (2008, July-Dec.). A Caribbean musical enigma: Barbados. Caribbean Studies, 36(2), 236-240

Biography: Sean Jackson. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.seanjacksonmusic.com/home.html

Greaves, R., Inniss, M., Fletcher, J. G. (2010). An Organists Life (unpublished)

Gragg, L. (2005). Barbados. In Britain and the Americas: Culture, politics, and history. Retrieved from http://www.credoreference.

Marshall, T. G., & Watson, E. F. (2008). Barbados. In M. Kuss (Ed.), Music in Latin America and the Caribbean: An encyclopedic history (pp. 345-358). Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.

Meredith, S. (2003). Barbadian tuk music: Colonial development and post-independence recontextualization. British Journal of Ethnomusicology, 12(2), 81-106.

Millington, J. (1998). Barbados. In D. A. Olsen & D. E. Sheehy (Eds.), Garland encyclopedia of world music, volume 2 (pp. 813-821). London, England: Routledge.

Millington, Janice. (2005). Journal of Caribbean History (Vol 39: 1)


The 2013 Bahamas International Symposium on composers of African & Afro-Caribbean descent Symposium coordinators: Dr. Christine Gangelhoff and Marlon Daniel

The 2013 Bahamas International Symposium engages musicians, composers, and scholars from all over the world in presentations, performances, and conversations around composers and performers of African and Afro-Caribbean descent. Organized around the theme Caribbean Art Music: An Unexplored Tradition. Musical genres associated with the Caribbean typically include popular and traditional styles. Although many composers of art music have emerged from Caribbean nations and from the Caribbean Diaspora, information on this subject is scarce. As composers are slowly gaining recognition, a new understanding of and visibility for Caribbean art music is emerging. The mission of this symposium is to explore this topic of regional and international interest, drawing perspectives from a wide range of disciplines.

Dr. Christine Gangelhoff, Assistant Professor of Music at The College of The Bahamas and Member – The C-Force Chamber Ensemble, has been a member of the music faculty of The College of The Bahamas since 2007. Previously, she served on the faculties of Memorial University of Newfoundland and St. Thomas University in St. Paul, Minnesota. She holds degrees from Yale University, the University of Minnesota, and the University of North Texas. As a flautist Dr. Gangelhoff has established her career through solo and chamber performances in the United States, Canada, the Caribbean, and Europe. As an orchestral player, she has performed with the Minnesota Orchestra, St. Paul Chamber Orchestra, Oregon Symphony, Portland Ballet, and the Vancouver Island Symphony.In addition to performing, Dr. Gangelhoff has done extensive research on art music from the Caribbean region. The first volume of her bibliography on Caribbean art music received The College of The Bahamas Stanley Wilson award for Excellence in Research in 2012. She continues to work on subsequent volumes as she seeks to promote a deeper understanding of and greater visibility for this little-known tradition. Rebecca (Becky) S. Miller, associate professor of music, received an A.B. from Bryn Mawr College, an M.A. from Wesleyan University and a Ph.D. from Brown University in ethnomusicology. She conducted dissertation research as a Fulbright Fellow on the Caribbean island of Carriacou (Grenada). Professor Miller’s book, Carriacou String Band Serenade: Performing Identity in the Eastern Caribbean (Wesleyan University Press, 2008) examines social and political change through the performance of traditional music, song, and dance in Carriacou.
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